A concussion is a minor traumatic brain injury that is caused by a hit to the head or body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This type of rapid head movement causes the brain to move quickly within the skull. This movement changes the shape of the brain, damaging the cellular structure and causing chemical and metabolic changes that make it more difficult for the brain to function normally.

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Problems with balance
  • Glazed look in the eyes
  • Amnesia
  • Delayed response to questions
  • Forgetting an instruction, confusion about an assignment or position, or confusion of the game, score, or opponent
  • Inappropriate crying
  • Inappropriate laughter
  • Vomiting

Acute: (0-4 weeks):

  • Emphasis should be placed on facilitation of recovery including education, reassurance, sub symptoms threshold training and non-pharmacological interventions. 

Post-Acute: (4-12 weeks):

  • If patient not improving or symptoms worsening, then referral to an interdisciplinary clinic should be made. Focus should be placed on managing symptoms of sleep impairment, headache, mood, fatigue and memory/attention. The focus is on a graduated return to activity which may include work and school. 

Persistent: (3 mo. +):

  • If symptoms persist for more than three months, patients require an interdisciplinary team for symptom management using an individualized management approach with focus on returning to pre-injury activities.

During recovery, the brain is more vulnerable to re-injury. In rare cases, a second concussion sustained during recovery can cause the brain to undergo massive swelling. This extremely rare condition is known as Second Impact Syndrome (SIS). Approximately half of SIS patients die from their injuries, and survivors often suffer from life-long disability.

15-30% of persons with concussion may experience persisting symptoms beyond the typical three month time frame.1 The consequences for these individuals may include reduced functional ability, heightened emotional distress, and delayed return to work or school. 

Over-exertion may protract recovery but sub-symptom exercise is helpful for recovery.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to non-invasively record electrical activity of the brain.

Neurovine does not diagnose concussions. People use our technology after being diagnosed with concussion by their doctor.

Recommended Reading

More information about what we do can be found on our Learn More page.

  • Concussion Legacy
  • Colantonio A, Salehi S, Kristman V, et al. Return to work after work-related traumatic brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2016;39(3):389-399. 
  • NSW) MAAoNM. Guidelines for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury following a Closed Head Injury. In. Sydney2008. 
  • Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE): Physician/Clinician Office version instructions 
  • McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Dvořák J, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport. Br J Sports Med 2017;51:838-847